Child sexual abuse

Child sexual abuse leads to psychological disorders: Literature review

Savera Aziz Ali, Sumera Aziz Ali

Abstract


This scholarly paper explains the relationship between child sexual abuse and psychological disorders. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a forceful sexual contact with a child who is incapable of consenting. The impact of sexual abuse can range from physical to very severe psychological effects. Psychological disorders caused by child sexual abuse include panic disorder, anxiety, depression, substance abuse, low self-esteem and post-traumatic stress disorder. The phenomenon of child sexual abuse is shaped by some important theories like behavioral, psychodynamic, attachment, cognitive and integrated theory. These theories may help to develop a sound empirical base through which cost effective strategies can be made to prevent child sexual abuse. Although child sexual abuse is considered as an offensive act in Pakistan, but it is usually hidden in our society. Approximately 3,861 and 1,204 child sexual abuse cases were reported in 2012 and 2013 respectively from Pakistan. A series of current cases of child sexual abuse has brought the issue to the limelight. Child sexual abuse affects not only the individual but also the families and societies on large scale. Therefore, an integrated approach focusing on the parents, teachers and medical professionals can be proposed to prevent this issue. Prevention programs such as parenting education, home-visiting programs, public education, and training sessions can be developed. Therefore, it is highly important for the families and communities to work together with the support of stakeholders, so that a voice can be raised against CSA and this will ultimately reduce psychological problems in the society.

Keywords


Childhood Sexual Abuse; Psychological Disorders

Full Text:

PDF

References


Early Childhood Health Problems and Prevention Strategies: Costs and Benefits Issue paper (2014). Retrieved from http://www.readynation.org/uploads/200801_HopkinsBriefFINAL.pdf

Christine D. Baker (2002). Introduction and prevalence of child sexual abuse. In Female survivors of sexual abuse (pp. 27-38). U.S.A: Routledge.

Reinhard B. Dettmeyer, Marcel A. Verhoff, Harald F. Schütz (2014). Child Sexual Abuse. Forensic Medicine, 309-319.

Gunnur Karakurta, Kristin E. Silver (2014). Therapy for Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors Using Attachment and Family Systems Theory Orientations. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 42(1), 79-91.

Noemí Pereda., Georgina Guilera., Maria Forns., Juana Gómez-Benito (2009). The prevalence of child sexual abuse in community and student samples: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(4), 328-338.

David Finkelhor, Anne Shattuck, Heather A. Turner, Sherry L. Hamby, (2014). The Lifetime Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse and Sexual Assault Assessed in Late Adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55(3), 329-33.

Child rape gets more media attention in Pakistan - Pakistan | ReliefWeb. (2013). Retrieved from http://reliefweb.int/report/pakistan/child-rape-gets-more-media-attention-pakistan

Rape and the rot | Pakistan Gender News. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.pakistangendernews.org/rape-and-the-rot/

Mir Shakil-ur-Rahman (2013). Rape and the rot - thenews.com.pk. Retrieved from http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-8-204621-Rape-and-the-rot

Ihsan Qadir (2013, December 5). Sexual abuse of Pakistani children linked to social factors. Retrieved from http://www.upi.com/UPI-Next/2013/12/05/Sexual-abuse-of-Pakistani-children-linked-to-social-factors/41381152880560/

W. L. Marshall, H. E. Barbaree (1990). An Integrated Theory of the Etiology of Sexual Offending. Handbook of Sexual Assault Applied Clinical Psychology, 257-275

Smallbone, S., Marshall, W. L., Wortley, R. (2008). Preventing child sexual abuse: Evidence policy and practice. Cullompton: Willan Pub.

R. Karl Hanson1, Arthur Gordon, Andrew J. R. Harris, Janice K. Marques, William Murphy, Vernon L. Quinsey and Michael C. Seto (2002). First Report of the Collaborative Outcome Data Project on the Effectiveness of Psychological Treatment for Sex Offenders. A journal of research and treatment, 14(2), 169-194.

Richard T. Rada, MD, D. R. Laws, PHD.t, Robert Kellner, MD, PHD (1976). Plasma Testosterone Levels in the Rapist. Psychosomatic Medicine, 38(4).

Jennifer Tallon, Karen J. Terry (2013). Child Sexual Abuse: A Review of the Literature. Retrieved from http://www.usccb.org/issues-and-action/child-and-youth-protection/upload/child-sexual-abuse-literature-review-john-jay-college-2004.pdf

C R Bagley ; R J Thomlison (1991). Child Sexual Abuse: Critical Perspectives on Prevention, Intervention, and Treatment. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=132818

Deborah L Shapiro Alytia A Levendoskya (1999). Adolescent survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the mediating role of attachment style and coping in psychological and interpersonal functioning. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23(11), 1175-1191.

Fergusson DM, McLeod GF, Horwood LJ. (2013). Childhood sexual abuse and adult developmental outcomes: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study in New Zealand. Child Abuse Neglected, 37(9).

Payne JS1, Galvan FH, Williams JK, Prusinski M, Zhang M, Wyatt GE, Myers HF. (2014). Impact of childhood sexual abuse on the emotions and behaviours of adult men from three ethnic groups in the USA. Culture, health and sexuality. [Epub ahead of print].

Ullman, S. E., Peter-Hagene, L. C., Relyea, M. (2014). Coping, emotion regulation, and self-blame as mediators of sexual abuse and psychological symptoms in adult sexual assault. Journal of child sexual abuse, 23(1), 74-93.

Sharon C. Wilsnack, Nancy D. Vogeltanz, Albert D. Klassen, T. Robert Harris (1997).Childhood sexual abuse and women's substance abuse: National survey findings. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 58(3).

Fasihudin (2006). Child Sexual Abuse in Pakistan: Role of Criminologists and Police. Ameican Society of Criminology. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/55488267/Child-Sexual-Abuse

Philip Gilligan Shamim Akhtar (2006). Cultural Barriers to the Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse in Asian Communities: Listening to What Women Say. British Journal of Social Work, 36(8), 1361–1377.

Hans Zollner1, Katharina A Fuchs1 and Jörg M Fegert2 (2014). Prevention of sexual abuse: improved information is crucial. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 8(5), 1-9.

Claire L. Fox, Mary-Louise Corr, David Gadd and Julius Sim (2014). Evaluating the effectiveness of domestic abuse prevention education: Are certain children more or less receptive to the messages conveyed? Legal and Criminological Psychology. [Epub ahead of print].

Beth E. Molnar ScD, William R. Beardslee M.D (2014). Community-Level Prevention of Child Maltreatment. Handbook of Child Maltreatment Child Maltreatment, 2, 301-315.

UNICEF Pakistan - Partners - Child Protection. (1996-2014). Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/pakistan/partners_1790.htm.

Braquehais, M. D., Oquendo, M. A., Baca-García, E., Sher, L. (2010). Is impulsivity a link between childhood abuse and suicide? Comprehensive Psychiatry, 51(2).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18035/emj.v2i4.317

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c)

Copyright 2012-14 © Mednifico Publishers and

INDEXATIONS

DOAJ         Copernicus         Scholar

Ulrichsweb         Journalseek         J-Gate