Prevalance of cardiovascular risk factors according to gender

Maheen Naeem, Sanober Sadiq, Fatima Khatoon, Faiza Anees, Javed Ismail


Objective: To compare prevalence of major risk factors for heart diseases among males and females admitted at Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases (KIHD), Karachi.

Methods: This was a Cross sectional, Descriptive study conducted at KIHD, during June 2010 – September 2010. Total 302 patients were included in study by Convenient Sampling Technique. Patients of known Cardio Vascular Diseases [CVDs] admitted in general or private wards of KIHD were recruited regardless of any age, gender or race. After taking informed consent patients were asked in their mother tongue about different risk factors of CVDs like Hypertension, Diabetes, Family history of premature [<50 years] Coronary Artery Disease [CAD], Smoking, Smokeless tobacco, Prior history of Coronary Heart Failure [CHF] or Myocardial Infarction [MI], Renal failure and Chronic Lung Disease [CLD]. All data was entered and analysed thorough SPSS v 16.

Results: A total of 302 patients were observed among them 150 (49.7%) were males and 152(50.3%) females. Mean age and (±SD) for male and female was 55.97 (±10.84) and 56.15(±12.04) respectively. Hypertension (77.6%, P <0.001), Diabetes Mellitus (48%, P 0.007), and CLD (13.2%, P 0.002) were more prevalent in females, whereas cigarette smoking (44%, P <0.001) was more prevalent in males. The prevalence of angina pectoris was significantly higher in both genders as it was found in 83(55.3%) males and 91(59.9%) females (p 0.425), but unstable angina was more common in females 56(36.8%) and stable angina 48(32%) in males (p 0.028). About 68(45.3%) males had an episode of Myocardial Infarction (MI) in contrast to 49(32.24%) females (p 0.019), which showed that male gender has higher rate of MI incidence. No considerable difference was found for family history of CAD, consanguine marriages, prior history of CHF and renal failure.

Conclusion: Hypertension was most prevalent risk factor in both genders but predominantly affect females challenging pre existing beliefs. Therefore measures should be taken to increase awareness of CVD in both males and females.


Hypertension, Risk factors, CVDs, Gender, Smoking, Angina, Myocardial Infarction


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