Prevalance of cardiovascular risk factors according to gender

Maheen Naeem, Sanober Sadiq, Fatima Khatoon, Faiza Anees, Javed Ismail

Abstract


Objective: To compare prevalence of major risk factors for heart diseases among males and females admitted at Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases (KIHD), Karachi.

Methods: This was a Cross sectional, Descriptive study conducted at KIHD, during June 2010 – September 2010. Total 302 patients were included in study by Convenient Sampling Technique. Patients of known Cardio Vascular Diseases [CVDs] admitted in general or private wards of KIHD were recruited regardless of any age, gender or race. After taking informed consent patients were asked in their mother tongue about different risk factors of CVDs like Hypertension, Diabetes, Family history of premature [<50 years] Coronary Artery Disease [CAD], Smoking, Smokeless tobacco, Prior history of Coronary Heart Failure [CHF] or Myocardial Infarction [MI], Renal failure and Chronic Lung Disease [CLD]. All data was entered and analysed thorough SPSS v 16.

Results: A total of 302 patients were observed among them 150 (49.7%) were males and 152(50.3%) females. Mean age and (±SD) for male and female was 55.97 (±10.84) and 56.15(±12.04) respectively. Hypertension (77.6%, P <0.001), Diabetes Mellitus (48%, P 0.007), and CLD (13.2%, P 0.002) were more prevalent in females, whereas cigarette smoking (44%, P <0.001) was more prevalent in males. The prevalence of angina pectoris was significantly higher in both genders as it was found in 83(55.3%) males and 91(59.9%) females (p 0.425), but unstable angina was more common in females 56(36.8%) and stable angina 48(32%) in males (p 0.028). About 68(45.3%) males had an episode of Myocardial Infarction (MI) in contrast to 49(32.24%) females (p 0.019), which showed that male gender has higher rate of MI incidence. No considerable difference was found for family history of CAD, consanguine marriages, prior history of CHF and renal failure.

Conclusion: Hypertension was most prevalent risk factor in both genders but predominantly affect females challenging pre existing beliefs. Therefore measures should be taken to increase awareness of CVD in both males and females.


Keywords


Hypertension, Risk factors, CVDs, Gender, Smoking, Angina, Myocardial Infarction

References


Global status report on noncommunicable disaeses 2010. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2011. Fact sheet available online : http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/index.html [Last accessed : Febuary, 2014]

Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med, 2006, 3(11):e442.

Link: http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0030442#s3

S. P. Iqbal, S. Dodani, R. Qureshi ( Department of Family Medicine, The Aga Khan University, Karachi. Risk Factors and Behaviours for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) among Ambulatory Pakistanis. JPMA; May, 2004

Link: http://www.jpma.org.pk/full_article_text.php?article_id=1122

Syed Faraz Kazim1, Ahmed Itrat2, Naima Waqar Butt3, Muhammad Ishaq4. Comparison of cardiovascular disease patterns in two data [Soft Break]sets of patients admitted at a Tertiary Care Public [Soft Break]Hospital in Karachi five years apart.Volume 25.January-March 2009

Link: http://www.pjms.com.pk/issues/janmar09/article/article10.html

Jafar TH. Women in Pakistan have a greater burden of clinical cardiovascular risk factors than men. Int J Cardiol. 2006 Jan 26;106(3):348-54.

Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16337043

William B. Kannel; Melvin J. Schwartz; Patricia M. McNamara. Blood Pressure and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The Framingham Study. Chest. 1969;56(1):43-52. doi:10.1378/chest.56.1.43

Link: http://journal.publications.chestnet.org/article.aspx?articleid=1057757

Pemu, PI, Offili, E. Hypertension in women. J Clin Hypertens 2008; 10:406.

Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=7.%09Pemu%2C+PI%2C+Offili%2C+E.+Hypertension+in+women.+J+Clin+Hypertens+2008%3B+10%3A406.

Anastos K, Charney P, Charon RA, Cohen E, Jones CY, Marte C, Swiderski DM, Wheat ME, Williams S. Hypertension in women: what is really known? The Women's Caucus, Working Group on Women's Health of the Society of General Internal Medicine. Ann Intern Med. 1991 Aug 15;115(4):287-93.

Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1854113

Lundberg V, Stegmayr B, Asplund K, Eliasson M, Huhtasaari F. Diabetes as a risk factor for myocardial infarction: population and gender perspectives. J Intern Med 1997; 241: 485-492. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=9.%09Lundberg+V%2C+Stegmayr+B%2C+Asplund+K%2C+Eliasson+M%2C+Huhtasaari+F.+Diabetes+as+a+risk+factor+for+myocardial+infarction%3A+population+and+gender+perspectives.+J+Intern+Med+1997%3B+241%3A+485-492.

Kaseta JR, Skafar DF, Ram JL, Jacober SJ, Sowers JR. Cardiovascular disease in the diabetic woman. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84: 1835-8.

Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=10.%09Kaseta+JR%2C+Skafar+DF%2C+Ram+JL%2C+Jacober+SJ%2C+Sowers+JR.+Cardiovascular+disease+in+the+diabetic+woman.+J+Clin+Endocrinol+Metab+1999%3B+84%3A+1835-8.

Zhang LN, Yang YM, Xu ZR, Gui QF, Hu QQ. Chewing substances with or without tobacco and risk of cardiovascular disease in Asia: a meta-analysis. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2010 Sep;11(9):681-9. doi: 10.1631/jzus.B1000132.

Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20803772

Critchley JA, Unal B. Is smokeless tobacco a risk factor for coronary heart disease? A systematic review of epidemiological studies. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2004 Apr;11(2):101-12.

Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15187813

Joshi R, Taksande B, Kalantri SP, Jajoo UN, Gupta R. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among rural population of elderly in Wardha district. J Cardiovasc Dis Res. 2013 Jun;4(2):140-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jcdr.2013.03.002. Epub 2013 Jun 19.

Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24027373

Watz H, Arzt M. COPD and heart disease. Herz. 2014 Feb 7. [Epub ahead of print]

Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24509868

Comeau A, Jensen L, Burton JR. Can symptom presentation predict unstable angina/non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in a moderate-risk cohort? Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 2006; 5: 127-36.

Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=15.%09Comeau+A%2C+Jensen+L%2C+Burton+JR.+Can+symptom+presentation+predict+unstable+angina%2Fnon-ST-segment+elevation+myocardial+infarction+in+a+moderate-risk+cohort%3F+Eur+J+Cardiovasc+Nurs+2006%3B+5%3A+127-36.

Sinkovic A, Marinsek M, Svensek F. Women and men with unstable angina and/or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2006; 118: 52-57.

Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=16.%09Sinkovic+A%2C+Marinsek+M%2C+Svensek+F.+Women+and+men+with+unstable+angina+and%2For+non-ST-elevation+myocardial+infarction.+Wien+Klin+Wochenschr+2006%3B+118%3A+52-57




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18035/emj.v3i1.197

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016

Copyright 2012-14 © Mednifico Publishers and

INDEXATIONS

DOAJ         Copernicus         Scholar

Ulrichsweb         Journalseek         J-Gate